Selected Bibliography

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2. Fukamizo, T., Ohkawa, T., Sonoda, K., Toyoda, H., Nishiguchi, T., Ouchi, S., Goto, S. (1992). Chitinous components of the cell wall of Fusarium oxysporum. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 56:1632-1636. [PMID: 1282049]

3. Ohtakara, A., Izume, M., Mitsutomi, M. (1988) Action of microbial chitosanases on chitosan with different degrees of deacetylation. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry, 52:3181-3182.

4. Sashiwa, H., Saimoto, H., Shigemasa, Y., Ogawa, R., Tokura, S. (1991) Lysozyme susceptibility of partially deacetylated chitins. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 12:295-296.

4a. Stokke, B.T., Vårum, K.M., Holme, H.K., Hjerde, R.J.N., Smidsrød, O. (1995) Sequence specificities for lysozyme depolymerization of partially N-acetylated chitosans. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 73:1972-1981.

5. Yalpani, M., Pantaleone, D. (1994) An examination of the unusual susceptibilities of aminoglycans to enzymatic hydrolysis. Carbohydrate Research 256:159-175.

6. Terbojevich, M., Cosani, A., Muzzarelli, R.A.A. (1996) Molecular parameters of chitosans depolymerized with the aid of papain. Carbohydrate Polymers 29:63-68.

7. Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Xia, W., Tomasetti, M., Ilari, P. (1995) Depolymerization of chitosan and substituted chitosans with the aid of a wheat germ lipase preparation. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 17:541-545.

8. Mitsutomi, M., Isono, M., Uchiyama, A., Nikaidou, N., Ikegami, T., Watanabe, T. (1998) Chitosanase activity of the enzyme previously reported as beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from Bacillus circulans WL-12. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 62:2107-2114. [PMID: 9972232]

9. Muzzarelli, R.A.A. (1993) Advances in N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidases. In: Chitin Enzymology (R.A.A. Muzzarelli, editor) European Chitin Society, Ancona, pages 357-373.

10. Nanjo, F., Katsumi, R., Sakai, K. (1990) Purification and characterization of an exo-beta-D- glucosaminidase, a novel type of enzyme, from Nocardia orientalis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 265:10088-10094.

11. Henrissat, B., Bairoch, A. (1996) Updating the sequence-based classification of glycosyl hydrolases. Biochemical Journal 316:695-696.

12. Masson, J-Y., Denis, F., Brzezinski, R (1994) Primary sequence of the chitosanase gene from Streptomyces N174 and comparison with other endoglycosidases. Gene 140:103-107. [PMID: 8125325]

13. Masson J.-Y., Boucher, I., Neugebauer, W.A., Ramotar, D., Brzezinski, R. (1995) A new chitosanase gene from a Nocardioides sp. is a third member of glycosyl hydrolase family 46. Microbiology 141:2629-2635. [PMID: 7582023]

14. Lu, Z., Il, Y., Que, Q., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L., Van Etten, J.L. (1996) Analysis of 94 kb of the Chlorella virus PBCV-1 330-kb genome: map positions 88 to 182. Virology 216:102-123. [PMID: 8614977]

15. Yamada, T., Hiramatsu, S., Songsri, P., Fujie, M. (1997) Alternative expression of a chitosanase gene produces two different proteins in cells infected with Chlorella virus CVK2. Virology 230:361-368.

16. Parro, V., San Román, M., Galindo, I., Purnelle, B., Bolotin, A., Sorokin, A., Mellado, R.P. (1997) A 23911 bp region of the Bacillus subtilis genome comprising genes located upstream and downstream the lev operon. Microbiology 143:1321-1326. [PMID: 9141695]

17. Ando, A., Noguchi, K., Yanagi, M., Shinoyama, H., Kagawa, Y., Hirata, H., Yabuki, M., Fujii, T. (1992) Primary structure of chitosanase produced by Bacillus circulans MH-K1. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 38:135-144.

18. Seki, K., Kuriyama, H., Okuda, T., Uchida, Y. (1997) Molecular cloning of the gene encoding chitosanase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UTK. In: Advances in Chitin Science, vol.II (A.Domard, G.A.F. Roberts, K.M. Vårum, editors), Jacques André Publ. Lyon, France, pages 284-289.

19. NCBI locus 2626878.

20. Park, J.K., Shimono, K., Ochiai, N., Shigeru, K., Kurita, M., Ohta, Y., Tanaka, K., Matsuda, H., Kawamukai, M., (1999) Purification, characterization, and gene analysis of a chitosanase (ChoA) from Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001 Journal of Bacteriology 181:6642-6649. [PMID: 10542164] See also database files: NCBI locus 3399693. DDBJ locus AB010493.

21. Shimosaka, M., Kumehara, M., Zhang, X.-Y., Nogawa, M., Okazaki, M. (1996) Cloning and characterization of a chitosanase gene from the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium solani. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 82:426-431.

22. Fukamizo, T., Ohkawa, T., Ikeda, Y., Goto, S. (1994) Specificity of chitosanase from Bacillus pumilus. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1205:183-188. [PMID: 8155696]

23. Mitsutomi, M., Kidoh, H., Tomita, H., Watanabe, T. (1995) The action of Bacillus circulans WL-12 chitinases on partially N-acetylated chitosan. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 59:529-531.

24. Ohno, T., Armand, S., Hata, T., Nikaidou, N., Henrissat, B., Mitsutomi, M., Watanabe, T. (1996) A modular family 19 chitinase found in the prokaryotic organism Streptomyces griseus HUT 6037. Journal of Bacteriology 178:5065-5070.

25. Fenton, D.M., Eveleigh, D.E. (1981) Purification and mode of action of a chitosanase from Penicillium islandicum. Journal of General Microbiology 126:151-165.

26. Fukamizo, T., Honda, Y., Goto, S., Boucher, I., Brzezinski, R. (1995) Reaction mechanism of chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174. Biochemical Journal 311:377-383. [PMID: 7487871]

27. Izume, M., Nagae, S., Kawagishi, H., Mitsutomi, M., Ohtakara, A. (1992) Action pattern of Bacillus sp. No. 7-M chitosanase on partially N-acetylated chitosan. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 56:448-453. [PMID: 1368330]

27a. Vårum, K.M., Holme, H.K., Izume, M., Stokke, B.T., Smidsrød, O. (1996) Determination of enzymatic hydrolysis specificity of partially N-acetylated chitosans. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1291:5-15. [PMID: 8781519]

28. Mitsutomi, M., Ohtakara, A. (1992) Difference between microbial chitinase and chitosanase in the mode of action on partially N-acetylated chitosan. In: Advances in Chitin and Chitosan (C.J. Brine, P.A. Sandford, J.P. Zikakis, editors) Elsevier, London, pages 304-313.

29. Mitsutomi, M., Kidoh, H., Ando, A. (1995) Action of chitosanase on partially N-acetylated chitosan. Chitin and Chitosan Research, 1:132-133. (in Japanese).

30. Sakai, K., Katsumi, R., Isobe, A., Nanjo, F. (1991) Purification and hydrolytic action of a chitosanase from Nocardia orientalis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1079:65-72. [PMID: 1888765]

31. Boucher, I., Dupuy, A., Vidal, P., Neugebauer, W.A., Brzezinski, R. (1992) Purification and characterization of a chitosanase from Streptomyces N174. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 38:188-193.

32. Fink, D., Boucher, I., Denis, F., Brzezinski, R. (1991) Cloning and expression in Streptomyces lividans of a chitosanase-encoding gene from Kitasatosporia N174 isolated from soil. Biotechnology Letters 13:845-850.

33. Neugebauer, E., Gamache, B., Déry, C.V., Brzezinski, R. (1991) Chitinolytic properties of Streptomyces lividans. Archives of Microbiology 156:192-197.

34. Brzezinski, R., Boucher, I., Dupuy, A., Plouffe, B. (1997) Actinomycetes as model organisms for the study of chitosanases. In: Chitin Handbook (R.A.A. Muzzarelli, M.G. Peter, editors) European Chitin Society, Ancona, Italy, pages 291-295.

35. Denis, F., Brzezinski, R. (1992) A versatile shuttle cosmid vector for use in Escherichia coli and actinomycetes. Gene 111:115-118.

36. Boucher, I., Fukamizo, T., Honda, Y., Willick, G.E., Neugebauer, W.A., Brzezinski, R. (1995) Site-directed mutagenesis of evolutionary conserved carboxylic amino acids in the chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174 reveals two residues essential for catalysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 270:31077-31082. [PMID: 8537367]

37. Masson, J.-Y., Li, T., Boucher, I., Beaulieu, C., Brzezinski, R. (1993) Factors governing an efficient chitosanase production by recombinant Streptomyces lividans strains carrying the cloned chs gene from Streptomyces N174. In: Chitin Enzymology (R.A.A. Muzzarelli, editor) European Chitin Society, Ancona, Italy, pages 283-288.

38. Marcotte, E.M., Monzingo, A.F., Ernst, S.R., Brzezinski, R., Robertus, J.D. (1996) X-ray structure of an anti-fungal chitosanase from Streptomyces N174. Nature Structural Biology 3:155-162. [PMID: 8564542]

39. Fukamizo, T., Brzezinski, R. (1997) Chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. strain N174: a comparative review of its structure and function. Biochemistry and Cell Biology 75:687-696. [PMID: 9599657]

40. Wang, Q., Graham, R.W., Trimbur, D., Warren, R.A.J., Withers, S.G. (1994) Changing enzymatic reaction mechanism by mutagenesis: conversion of a retaining glucosidase to an inverting enzyme. Journal of the American Chemical Society 116:11594-11595.

41. Monzingo, A.F., Marcotte, E.M., Hart, J.P., Robertus, J.D. (1996) Chitinases, chitosanases, and lysozymes can be divided into procaryotic and eucaryotic families sharing a conserved core. Nature Structural Biology 3:133-140. [PMID: 8564539]

42. Honda, Y., Fukamizo, T., Okajima, T., Goto, S., Boucher, I., Brzezinski, R. (1999) Thermal unfolding of chitosanase from Streptomyces sp. N174: role of tryptophan residues in the protein structure stabilization. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1429:365-376. [PMID: 9989221]

43. Akiyama, K., Fujita, T., Kuroshima, K., Sakane, T., Yokota, A., Takata, R. (1999) Purification and gene cloning of a chitosanase from Bacillus ehimensis EAG1. Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering 87:383-385.

44. Amino acid sequence translated from the genomic sequence of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Cosmid 3a3. Gene SC3A3.02.

45. NCBI GenBank locus ABO29336. Burkholderia gladioli csnA gene for chitosanase A, complete coding sequence. Submitted by Shimosaka, M., Fukumori, Y., Zhang, X., He, N., Kodaira, R. and Okazaki, M. (1999).

46. Honda, Y., Kirihata, M., Fukamizo, T., Kaneko, S., Tokuyasu, K., Brzezinski, R. (1999) Chitosanase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-chitotrioside. Journal of Biochemistry 126:470-474. [PMID: 10467161]

47. Denis, F., Brzezinski, R. (1991) An improved aminoglycoside resistance gene cassette for use in Gram-negative bacteria and Streptomyces. FEMS Microbiology Letters 81:261-264.

48. Matsuda, Y., Iida, Y., Shinogi, T., Kakutani, K., Nonomura, T., Toyoda, H. (2001) In vitro suppression of mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum by extracellular chitosanase of Sphingobacterium multivorum and cloning of the chitosanase gene csnSM1. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 67:318-324. See also NCBI GenBank locus AB030253.

49. Saito, J-i., Kita, A., Higuchi, Y., Nagata, Y., Ando, A., Miki, K. (1999) Crystal structure of chitosanase from Bacillus circulans MH-K1 at 1.6-A resolution and its substrate recognition mechanism. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274:30818-30825. [PMID: 10521473]

50. Sun, L., Adams, B., Gurnon, J.R., Ye, Y., Van Etten, J.L. (1999) Characterization of two chitinase genes and one chitosanase gene encoded by Chlorella virus PBCV-1. Virology 263:376-387.

51. NCBI GenBank locus ABO38996. Aspergillus oryzae csn gene for chitosanase, complete coding sequence. Submitted by Zhang, X., Dai, A., Shimosaka, M. and Okazaki, M. (2000).

52. NCBI GenBank locus AF105078. Aspergillus fumigatus csn chitosanase mRNA, partial sequence. Submitted by Kang, T.H., Chung, J.Y. and Chung, K.C. (1998).

53. NCBI GenBank locus AF160195. Bacillus sp. KFB-CO4 thermostable chitosanase gene (choK). Submitted by Yoon, H.G. and Cho, H.Y. (2000).

54. NCBI GenBank locus AL132973. Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) secreted chitosanase. Gene "SCF91.37". (2004). Amino acid sequence translated from the genomic sequence.

55. Yoon, H.-G., Kim, H.-Y., Lim, Y.-H., Kim, H.-K., Shin, D.-H., Hong, B.-S., Cho, H.-Y. (2000) Thermostable chitosanase from Bacillus sp. strain CK4: cloning and expression of the gene and characterization of the enzyme. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:3727-3734. [PMID: 10966383]

56. Tremblay, H., Blanchard, J., Brzezinski, R. (2000) A common molecular signature unifies the chitosanases belonging to families 46 and 80 of glycoside hydrolases. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 46:952-955.

57. Fukamizo, T., Juffer, A.H., Vogel, H.J., Honda, Y., Tremblay, H., Boucher, I., Neugebauer, W.A., Brzezinski R. (2000) Theoretical calculation of pk(a) reveals an important role of Arg(205) in the activity and stability of Streptomyces sp. N174 chitosanase. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275:25633-25640. [PMID: 10829022]

58. Shimosaka, M., Fukumori, Y., Zhang, X.Y., He, N.J., Kodaira, R., Okazaki, M. (2000) Molecular cloning and characterization of a chitosanase from the chitosanolytic bacterium Burkholderia gladioli strain CHB101. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 54:354-360. [PMID: 11030572]

59. Screen, S.E., St Leger, R.J. (2000) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum putative chitosanase. GI locus 9971106, accession number AJ293219.

60. Rivas, L.A., Parro, V., Moreno-Paz, M., Mellado, R.P. (2000) The Bacillus subtilis 168 csn gene encodes a chitosanase with similar properties to a Streptomyces enzyme. Microbiology. 146:2929-2936. [PMID: 11065371]

61. Cheng, C.Y., Li, Y-K. (2000) An Aspergillus chitosanase with potential for large-scale preparation of chitosan oligosaccharides. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 32:197-203.

62. Shimono, K., Shigeru, K., Tsuchiya, A., Itou, N., Ohta, Y., Tanaka, K., Nakagawa, T., Matsuda, H., Kawamukai, M. (2002) Two glutamic acids in chitosanase from Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001 are the catalytically important residues. Journal of Biochemistry 131:87-96. [PMID: 11754739]

63. Kimoto, H., Kusaoke, H., Yamamoto, I., Fujii, Y., Onodera, T., Taketo, A. (2002) Biochemical and genetic properties of Paenibacillus glycosyl hydrolase having chitosanase activity and discoidin domain. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277:14695-14702. [PMID: 11854270]

64. Yoon, H-G., Lee, K-H., Kim, H-Y., Kim, H-K., Shin, D-H., Hong, B-S., Cho, H-Y. (2002) Gene cloning and biochemical analysis of thermostable chitosanase (TCH-2) from Bacillus coagulans CK108. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 66:986-995. [PMID: 12092850]

65. Tanabe, T., Morinaga, K., Fukamizo, T., Mitsutomi, M. (2003) Novel chitosanase from Streptomyces griseus HUT 6037 with transglycosylation activity. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 67:354-364. [PMID: 12728998]

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